A first half header from Matty Gillam and Andy Cannon’s second half brace secured Dale’s progression in the competition.
An away trip to Liverpool awaits in the next round.
A mix of first-team and youth-team players lined-up against the Bluebirds at a wet and windy Holker Street, with the likes of Peter Vincenti and Andy Cannon featuring alongside Matty Gillam and Jack Stewart.
Rochdale controlled the early proceedings, but Barrow looked dangerous on the counter-attack without truly troubling.
Stewart had the first real opportunity of the game, but he failed to make a clean connection on the Vincenti delivery, and saw his effort drift away from goal.
Gillam then forced Andy Coughlin into a save, as he struck low towards the bottom corner of the net.
A few minutes later and Dale were almost punished, but Inih Effiong failed to capitalise on an under-hit back-pass, with the striker, who joined Barrow this week, unable to get his outstretched foot on the ball.
The home side were growing into the match and in the 25th minute Effiong had the ball in the back of the net, only to see a late offside flag go up.
Ten minutes later, Rochdale opened the scoring. After Stewart was denied by the bar, Gillam headed home on the rebound.
Shortly after, Gillam showed quality to skip into the area past his marker. He flashed a dangerous ball across the edge of the six-yard box, but the outstretching David Owusu couldn’t get his toe on the delivery to turn it over the line.
Just before half-time, the home side equalised. After Effiong had his effort saved, the ball kindly fell for Jack Thomas, who lashed the ball beyond Johny Diba from the edge of the area.
HT: BARROW 1-1 ROCHDALE
A strong swirling wind battered Holker Street throughout the match and it played to Dale’s advantage in the second half.
Rochdale started the second 45 minutes on the front foot and Vincenti struck just inches wide of the upright a few minutes in.
Dale remained in control and regained the lead in the 51st minute. Cannon pounced on a mistake and fired low into the bottom corner of the net.
Goal scorer Cannon came close soon after, as he hit narrowly wide of the target.
Rochdale’s first substitution soon followed, when Stewart was replaced by Jack Lenehan.
The substitution saw Cannon pushed forward from right-back into a midfield role, and his performance earned him a second goal.
After a surging run from Reuben Noble-Lazarus, Cannon raced into the area to meet the pass and he coolly struck beyond the 'keeper.
Before the half was out, Barrow had their first and only shot of the half on target. Ross Hannah’s strike from 30-yards was well held by Diba, though.
And Cannon was denied his hat-trick, when Coughlin pushed his effort, which looked headed for the corner of the net, round the upright.
Dale XI: Diba, Cannon, McGahey, Gibbins, Taylor, Morley, Noble-Lazarus, Vincenti, Owusu, Stewart, Gillam. Subs: Collis, Kearney, Lenehan, Evans, Piggott.